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Question A:

How is mental health provided in the United States? Discuss how current services could be improved.

Question B:

Discuss the major factors contributing to the high costs of healthcare and why they are important.



Question A:

According to, “Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being (2022).” The website lists various peer group options, treatment centers, and recovery plans. For immediate attention, there are different crisis hotline contact information. If a person or if someone feels someone is in imminent danger, calling 911 is recommended. The annual financial burden of mental illness to the US economy is estimated to be $518B. These conditions are most prevalent among low- income and uninsured individuals which suggests that American taxpayers will finance a large share of the costs associated with mental illnesses through the funding of public insurance programs, free treatment paid through government grants and contracts, and cost-shifting (Blunt et al. 2020. P615).

With the passing of the Affordable Care Act, the expansion of Medicaid services to those qualifying participants offers mental health coverage. While some specialists may not cover Medicaid for mental health services, it has been determined that there is an expansion of providers has expanded for mental health (Blunt et al. 2020).

There is still a need for mental health intervention in the U.S. “42% of adults reported dealing with symptoms of anxiety and depression (Akinnibi & Holder, 2021).” Mental health crisis in the U.S. has placed a strain on healthcare organizations, teachers, law enforcement, and the economy. Increased federal funding to provide treatment and resources is needed. Increased education and awareness for all citizens is needed.

Question B:

The major factors contributing to high healthcare costs in the U.S. are third party payment, growth of technology, increase in the elderly population, medical model of healthcare delivery, multipayer system and administrative costs, defensive medicine, waste and abuse, and practice variations (Shi, 2015).

Third party payment refers to an insurance company or government covering healthcare costs. Growth of technology pertains to research, development, and supply of medical advancements. Increase in the elderly population increases healthcare spending due to increased life expectancy and increased medical care costs. The medical model of healthcare delivery is the treatment plan for a patient’s health. Health prevention may help but medical model, but costs are still high. Multipayer systems and administrative costs account for claims and utilization of processing healthcare statements and billing. Defensive medicine is the unfortunate spending due to physician ordering tests not necessarily for diagnosis purposes, but for fear of malpractice or legal risks of lawsuits. Waste and abuse are affiliated with healthcare fraud and up charging for additional services that were not performed. Practice variations are attributed to diverse types of care for the same illness but may differ depending on geographic locations (Shi, 2015).

All factors are important. Some costs are inevitable, medical services costs money. There are many factors with the corrected process and identification, which can reduce wasted and useless medical expenses.


Akinnibi, F., & Holder, S. (2021). “All the Systems Failed”: Inside America’s Mental Health Crisis. Bloomberg.Com, N.PAG.

Blunt, E. O., Maclean, J. C., Popovici, I., & Marcus, S. C. (2020). Public insurance expansions and mental health care availability. Health Services Research, 55(4), 615–625.

Shi, L. (2015). Essentials of the U.S. Health Care System (4th Edition). Jones & Bartlett


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2022. What is Mental

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